In 1534, he drafted and had approved an important church order that established the office of church presbyter as a fundamental instrument of church government. Nonetheless, despite his own personal rapport with Zwingli, he was not able to bring the Swiss theologian and Luther to agreement at the 1529 Marburg Colloquy. Bucer, a master in Theological Studies and a Strasbourg Reformer, left behind no Bucerianism and no church or sect. He influenced not only the development of Calvinism but also the liturgical development of the Anglican Communion. As a result, Bucer was forced to leave Strasbourg, never to return. He received his early education at the Latin School of his native place, where at the age of fifteen (1506) he also entered the Order of St. Dominic. Introduction Martin Bucer (b. Updates? Under his reign, the Reformation flourished. He was such a star on the continent, and he got invited over to Cambridge during the time of the young Edward VI, who was a godly young king in between Henry and Queen Mary. These representations have led to the view that Bucer was a theological light-weight, rightly placed in the shadow of Luther and Calvin. By 1529, he also persuaded the Strasbourg council to abolish the Roman Mass. He was at times befriended, at other times distrusted, by the more famous Martin. Affairs at Landstuhl grew tense, however, when Sickingen helped lead the Knights’ War against the elector of Trier. Bucer aided Philip in persuading Luther, Melanchthon, and others to sanction a second wife for him on the basis of Old Testament plural marriages. In 1529 Landgrave Philip of Hesse invited Zwingli and Luther, as well as other reformers, to Marburg to see if the conflicting opinions about the Lord’s Supper could be reconciled, which Bucer believed was possible. During a short stay at Weissenburg, Bucer preached sermons on 1 Peter and Matthew and also drafted his first theological treatise. Bucer was born near Strasbourg on November 11, 1491. Bucer would remain concerned with education and catechesis. Although he is not as well known as other Protestant reformer, like Martin Luther and John Calvin, he had a significant influence over the French city.. Born on 11 November 1491, Martin Bucer entered the … He’s the author of Not Yet Married: The Pursuit of Joy in … As part of the colloquies, he drafted the infamous “Regensburg Book” with Johannes Gropper, a Catholic theologian from Cologne. Britannica now has a site just for parents! The agreement affirmed Luther’s language of a sacramental union of the elements with the body and blood of Christ, then used that to embrace both the Wittenberg insistence on the Real Presence and the Strasbourg emphasis on the mystery of the sacrament and the preparation of the believer for reception. Ago – Faith & Prayer Magnolia, Steven Ozment to Lecture on Luther and Cranach, The Protestant Reformation and the Arts – Discoveries, Luther’s Pastor. Bucer’s policy of agreement by compromise was seen in a better light when it was applied to the problem of religious toleration. While his efforts to establish strict church discipline with his church order failed, he was later able to foster an alternative by supporting small groups of Christians who would meet together to exercise discipline internally and prepare themselves for communion. But it was a paper by Professor Brian Cummings (University of York), on Parker, Bucer, and the Book of Common Prayer, which got me thinking about a set of books in the University Library with resonant connections to the English Reformation in Cambridge. The knights were beaten badly, thereby putting Bucer at risk. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Bucer’s later years, however, saw his influence wane as he suffered failure on numerous fronts. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Martin-Bucer, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Martin Bucer, Martin Bucer - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). He joined the Order of Preachers, or Dominicans, as a novice in 1507. He accordingly called for a colloquy between Catholics and Protestants at Regensburg in 1541. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Introduction One of the charges which Rome leveled against the Reformers was the serious accusation that the Reformation tore the fabric of the church and destroyed the unity of the body of Christ. However, De Regno Christi is important for understanding the English Reformation and it is well worth the read, but it does require some patience. He was sent to study at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, where he became acquainted with the works of the great humanist scholar Erasmus and of Martin Luther, the founder of the Protestant Reformation. Charles selected three Catholic and three Protestant theologians (including Bucer) to discuss an anonymous document called the Regensburg Book, which proposed steps toward Catholic-Protestant union. Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices. While Bucer is not well known in comparison to other major Reformers, he is arguably one of the most influential of them. Editor of. At Heidelberg, he studied Greek under the future reformer Johannes Brenz and also came under the spell of Erasmus of Rotterdam, the most famous humanist of the day. Best known as the chief reformer of the Free Imperial City of Strasbourg, Bucer illustrates the combining of Martin Luther's evangelical theology with aspirations and traditions that predated the Reformation. BUCER, MARTIN. He was named pastor of St. Aurelia’s in 1524, serving until 1531. Caught up in the enthusiasm of the Reformation that was rapidly spreading in central Europe, Bucer became a Protestant reformer. In his defense he claimed that each of these compromises was only a temporary measure, that he hoped that further changes gradually would be made. If Martin Bucer (1477-1548) is not an unsung hero of the Reformation, he is certainly an undersung hero.This particularly is the case when it comes to public worship. Charles settled the matter for a time by subduing the Protestant powers, which would not accept any religious compromise, by military force and by enforcing his own compromise scheme, the Augsburg Interim of 1548. Nonetheless, the ultimate failure of the knights’ coalition led to his departure from Weissenburg in May 1523. In 1518, he found himself in Heidelberg at the Augustinian chapter house with Luther himself. Yet, Martin Bucer remains for those less acquainted with Reformation history something of a footnote in the life of John Calvin. He never recovered, dying on February 28, 1551, and receiving committal at Great St. Mary’s in Cambridge. Martin Bucer and the English Reformation, by Constantin Hopf Constantin Hopf Snippet view - 1946. It was by chance that Bucer attended the Heidelberg Disputation of April 1518, where Luther delivered his famous theses excoriating medieval scholasticism. Along with fellow reformer, Johannes Sturm, he turned the old Latin school in Strasbourg into a preparatory school in 1538, later also establishing a seminary with Sturm in 1544. There Bucer supported the offical, cautious reform program of Cranmer and the scholarly Nicholas Ridley against the more radical reform of the English church urged by the Zwinglian John Hooper and the Scottish reformer John Knox. Bucer led the charge in Strasbourg to resist the emperor, but Johannes Sturm—again, a former colleague—negotiated a settlement with Charles against Bucer’s wishes. Martin Bucer, Bucer also spelled Butzer, (born November 11, 1491, Schlettstadt (now Sélestat), Alsace—died February 28, 1551, England), Protestant reformer, mediator, and liturgical scholar best known for his ceaseless attempts to make peace between conflicting reform groups. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Religious Colloquies in Hagenau, Worms, and Regensburg, Robert Kolb to Speak at Concordia Seminary on “Luther’s Fiercest Foes”, Miroslav Volf to Speak at Concordia Seminary, The “Three Kingdoms” of Simon Musaeus: An essay from the Festschrift for James M. Estes, Session 4 Links - Christ the King Lutheran Church, Session 2 Links - Christ the King Lutheran Church, Luther’s Reformation 500 Yrs. Under Bucer’s policies there was less persecution of Anabaptists and other minority groups in Strasbourg than in most of Europe. We wrote an evangelical order for mass in 1525, as well as several catechisms for use in instruction. Answer: Martin Bucer (1491—1551) was a German Protestant Reformer. At Basel in 1536, Bucer participated in the writing of the First Helvetic Confession, a document that was considered by many Reformed theologians to veer too much toward Luther’s views, especially regarding the Lord’s Supper. His assessment, the Censura, delivered to the Bishop Ely a month before Bucer died, pointed out the vague Lutheranisms of the prayer book. He envisioned a renewal of the individual and society that was based on his earlier humanist views, and he believed that such a renewal would result from the preaching of the true Gospel and from faithful adherence to the divinely given pattern of living found in the Bible. As Herman J. Selderhuis notes in the introduction to this volume, “research of the biography and theology of Martin Bucer … can still be called rather new” (p. 15). In an effort to keep the scandal of Philip’s bigamy secret, evasive statements were made, and the matter caused the reformers’ reputations much harm. Scholars today trace Bucer's impact upon John Calvin, John Knox, and Thomas Cranmer as they shaped corporate worship traditions for much of the Reformation. Philipp Melanchthon, a Lutheran theologian to whom he has often been compared, also attended the conference. Born November 11, 1491, in the town of Schlettstadt near Strasbourg, Bucer was the son of a poor cobbler. Elizabeth knew she was dying. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. It appeared for a time as though Bucer and Melanchthon were about to achieve their goal of ending the dispute over the Lord’s Supper, a dispute that had split the Reformation on the Continent into two major groups. Martin Bucer and the English Reformation Constantin Hopf Limited preview - 2012. Martin Bucer played a part in the Reformation and his impact was in the city of Strasburg. The armies of Charles prevailed, however, and Strasbourg discharged Bucer and several other Protestant ministers, all of whom were invited to England by the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer. The First Prayer Book of Edward VI (1549), the liturgical book of the newly Reformed English church that contained evidence of Lutheran influence, was submitted for formal criticism to Bucer, who could not speak English. The following year he became pastor of Landstuhl, where he married a former nun. This year marks the 500th anniversary of the birth of one of the Reformation's greatest liturgists—Martin Bucer, a pioneer in the formation of Protestant worship patterns. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He published Latin translations of Johannes Bugenhagen’s Psalms commentary and Luther’s sermons, and he wrote commentaries of his own on the synoptic Gospels, Ephesians, John, Zephaniah, and Psalms. He lectured at Cambridge, assisted Thomas Cranmer in revising the Book of Common Prayer, and composed his own magnum opus, De Regno Christi. Martin Bucer (or Butzer) was a German Protestant reformer, probably best known for his efforts at ecumenical unification among the various emerging branches of reformed denominations. Though he had once held Luther’s views, he was influenced by Zwingli and Karlstadt to adopt a more symbolic view around 1525, only to finally gravitate toward a mediating position. Believing that the rift between the two strands of the reform movement could be bridged, Bucer participated in nearly every meeting on religious questions held in Germany and Switzerland between 1524 and 1548. There he would serve multiple parishes, draft liturgies, church orders, and catechisms, and work in tandem with some of the more prominent intellectuals of his day, including Calvin, Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples, Wolfgang Capito, and Johannes Sturm. Later, Bucer met Martin Luther and heard him teach. Despite such a meagre pedigree, he was trained at the renowned Latin school in his hometown run by the local Dominican cloister, where he would take vows in 1506 at the age of only fifteen. In 1549, Bucer made his way across the English Channel to London, where he would spend the remaining two years of his life. The Reformation, Women, & Women in Ministry On a fall day in 1541, Martin Bucer stood beside his wife’s bed. Summary : Martin Greschat's seminal work is the first biography of the important Protestant reformer to be written in over seventy years. Reformation Church | church history review. He would redouble his efforts to create inner-Protestant unity during the ensuing years. item 6 Martin Bucer and the English Reformation, Hopf, Constantin 9781620326695 New,, 5 - Martin Bucer and the English Reformation, Hopf, Constantin 9781620326695 New,, … Martin Bucer: Ecumenist of the Reformation. The plague that had killed so many in Strasbourg, including three of their children, was now killing her. His view was that even a poor compromise was justified if it made some progress toward reform but that Strasbourg accepting the Augsburg Interim would be a step backward. As a parish pastor, reformer, diplomat, preacher, and scholar, the former Dominican Bucer would help initiate and stabilize reform throughout the Holy Roman Empire, but chiefly in the imperial free city of Strasbourg. by J. Vriend … Martin Greschat's seminal work is the first biography of the important Protestant reformer to be written in over seventy years. He convinced Strasbourg theologians to subscribe to the Augsburg Confession in 1532, reached agreement with Melanchthon on the Eucharist at Kassel in 1534, and finally broke through to Luther in 1536 with the Wittenberg Concord. The young friar was quickly swayed by Luther’s opinions and, against the objections of his Dominican superiors, obtained a papal dispensation releasing him from his vows. Martin Bucer and the English Reformation, by Constantin Hopf Constantin Hopf Snippet view - 1946. Martin Bucer Martin Bucer was one of the leading lights of the Reformation in Strasbourg. Bucer’s policy of pragmatic solutions of problems proved to be especially controversial in the case of the bigamy of Philip of Hesse. He … Finally, back in Strasbourg Bucer found a new opponent in Charles V. Having emerged victorious in war with the Protestant Schmalkaldic League, the emperor instituted the 1548 Augsburg Interim, which forced Protestants to return to Catholic practice with very limited concessions. The work was received with great acclaim by King Edward VI and led to a doctor of divinity awarded by Cambridge, but soon after its completion Bucer fell ill. 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