[citation needed] However, according to Georgia state law, no one is allowed to alter the figures carved upon the stone face. [54][55] The venues for archery and cycling were temporary and are now part of the songbird and habitat trail. In pre-colonization, the site was used by Native American groups the Creek Federation and the Cherokee. I don't think people understand the objective and the intent. Fundraising was even more difficult after the public debate and name-calling, and work stopped in 1928. Railroads also connected residents from newly settled Atlanta and other cities such as Augusta to Stone Mountain. It’s Stone Mountain, and it’s an enormous, indelible monument to the Confederacy. Stone Mountain has long been an attraction for people, dating back thousands of years. Plane's vision of a carving explicitly for the purpose of creating a Confederate memorial. "[further explanation needed] By this time, the Stone Mountain area was inhabited by the Creek and (to a lesser extent) Cherokee peoples. The “Memorial Carving,” as it’s dubbed on the park’s website, is 400 feet above the surrounding ground and extends as much as 42 feet into the rock. The mountain, which ranges in composition from quartz monzonite to granite and granodiorite, is more than 5 miles (8 km) in circumference at its base. In October of that year, Venable granted the Klan easement with perpetual right to hold celebrations as they desired. A new logo emphasizes the mountain, rather than what’s carved on its face. There’s a reason Martin Luther King Jr. called out Stone Mountain by name from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in his 1963 “I Have A Dream” speech — “Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia” — and there’s also a reason the state of Georgia kept on working on the carving for another decade after that speech. Rose Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, First Landing Party of the Founders of Newark, Stone Mountain Park Archery Center and Velodrome, Krylatskoye Sports Complex Cycling Circuit, Elbert P. Tuttle United States Court of Appeals Building, Martin Luther King Jr. National Historical Park, National Center for Civil and Human Rights, William Breman Jewish Heritage & Holocaust Museum, Donna and Marvin Schwartz Center for Performing Arts, The Church at Ponce & Highland (Druid Hills Baptist Church), Concourse Corporate Center V & VI (King & Queen towers), 3rd Georgia Governor's Mansion (John H. James mansion), Post Office and Customs House/City Hall (1911-1930), Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area, Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve, Autrey Mill Nature Preserve & Heritage Center, Oxbow Meadows Environmental Learning Center, Savannah-Ogeechee Canal Museum & Nature Center, West Atlanta Watershed Alliance Outdoor Activity Center, Second Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stone_Mountain&oldid=1001907123, Confederate States of America monuments and memorials in Georgia, Outdoor sculptures in Georgia (U.S. state), Monuments and memorials to Jefferson Davis, Protected areas of DeKalb County, Georgia, Seven Natural Wonders of Georgia (U.S. state), American Civil War museums in Georgia (U.S. state), Slave cabins and quarters in the United States, Tourist attractions in DeKalb County, Georgia, United Daughters of the Confederacy monuments and memorials, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox mountain with deprecated parameters, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from November 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, Articles with incomplete citations from September 2018, Articles with dead external links from April 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 22:48. The Stone Mountain pluton continues underground 9 miles (14 km) at its longest point into Gwinnett County. The US Mint issued a 1925 Commemorative silver US half dollar, bearing the words "Stone Mountain", as a fundraiser for the monument. Stone Mountain is the name of a dome-shaped mineral outcrop called a monadnock or a pluton, "the largest exposed mass of granite in the world," according to David B. Freeman, author of Carved in Stone: The History of Stone Mountain. These vernal pools are also home to several federally listed rare and endangered plant species, such as black-spored quillwort (Isoetes melanospora) and pool sprite (also called snorkelwort, Gratiola amphiantha). Fundraising for the monument resumed in 1923. Georgia Geological Survey Bulletin 61. [1] The carving depicts three Confederate leaders, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, and Stonewall Jackson. Stone Mountain’s history 11. “The removal of the bas-relief of Confederates from Stone Mountain has been a constant debate since the state bought the property in 1958,” Stacy Abrams, who lost a narrow gubernatorial election to Kemp, tweeted in 2017. Ft. recently sold home at 4338 Morning Vw, Stone Mountain, GA 30083 that sold on September 8, 2020 for Last Sold for $282,400 The short broadcast tower on the top of the mountain transmits two non-commercial stations: television station WGTV TV 8, and weather radio station KEC80 on 162.55 MHz. Nevertheless a fight broke out between the gatherers downtown and counter-protesters downtown, with no injuries.[51]. The mountain was the eastern end of the Campbellton Trail, a Native American path that ran through what is now the Atlanta area. [18]:58–59 She met him at the Atlanta train station, took him to her family's summer home, Mont Rest, at the foot of the mountain, and introduced him to Sam Venable,[18]:59 another active Klan member and owner of the mountain. [18]:57 After obtaining the approval of the Georgia UDC, she set up the UDC Stone Mountain Memorial Association. Over time, erosion eventually exposed the present mountain of more resistant igneous rock. “Don’t worship it, but don’t blast it off. [29] It was followed in August by the highly publicized lynching of Leo Frank, who had been wrongly convicted of murder, in nearby Marietta, Georgia. The Historic Square Farmyard features historic breeds of sheep, goats, and pigs. That wouldn’t quite solve the issue, nor would simply blasting Lee, Jackson and Davis into oblivion. Whether you prefer a rustic retreat or a spacious suite, you'll find the perfect lodging option for your visit this winter. Adventure awaits as you discover our interactive family-friendly attractions and many natural and historic sights. "[58], Stone Mountain Park, which surrounds the Confederate Memorial, is owned by the state of Georgia and managed by the Stone Mountain Memorial Association, a Georgia state authority. After the Charleston church shooting in mid-2015, Stone Mountain was the subject of a political debate related to the removal of symbols of the Confederacy. Connect with friends faster than ever with the new Facebook app. Primarily composed of quartz monzonite, the dome of Stone Mountain was formed during the formation of the Blue Ridge Mountains around 300–350 million years ago (during the Carboniferous period), part of the Appalachian Mountains. The story of Stone Mountain, the world’s largest Confederate monument. [21] This issue, which required the approval of both the 1926 Congress and President Calvin Coolidge, was the largest issue of commemorative coins by the U.S. government up to that time. Show full articles without "Continue Reading" button for {0} hours. [24] Faulkner in 1985 opened the Stone Mountain Carving Museum (now closed) on nearby Memorial Drive commemorating the carving's history. In addition, Borglum planned a room cut 60 feet (18 m) into the mountain, 320 feet (98 m) wide, and 40 feet (12 m) high, faced by 13 columns. Through the National Coalition to End the Confederacy, Rose is hoping to put economic pressure on the state by starting a “No Georgia” campaign. Granite quarrying started at Stone Mountain in the 1830s, but became a major industry following the completion of a railroad spur to the quarry site in 1847. "[18]:55 Three weeks later, Georgian John Temple Graves, editor of the New York American, suggested it should have a 70-foot (21 m) statue of Robert E. Dogs are not allowed. [4], Stone Mountain was once owned by the Venable Brothers,[5] "as a memorial to the Confederacy. Changing street names and pulling down statues is one thing; how do you begin to address a monument carved out of solid rock? Stone Mountain, though often called a pink granite dome, actually ranges in composition from quartz monzonite[11] to granite and granodiorite.[12]. Stone Mountain is a pluton, a type of igneous intrusion. Facts About Stone Mountain. Stone Mountain is well known for not only its geology, but also the enormous rock relief on its north face, the largest bas-relief artwork in the world. Even as demonstrators remove Confederate monuments around the nation, Stone Mountain has lurked, the final question in the ongoing effort to recontextualize the acts and sins of the Confederacy. It’s etched on the side of a 280-some-million -year-old monadnock: Stone Mountain, seven miles around at … The Mountain View Waterworks is located on the corner of Gaylor and King streets in Mountain View, the seat of Stone County in north-central Arkansas. Three carving superintendents, numerous sculptors, plenty of controversy, and over half a century passed between conception and completion. As part of their ceremony, they set up on the summit an altar covered with a flag, opened a Bible, and burned a 16-foot cross.[7]:20[30]. Native American nations such as the Cherokee, Creek and Muscogee settled in the … From the beginning of efforts to create the carving in 1914, early proponents of the The tiny shrimp appear only during the rainy season. ", "Information about the Stone Mountain Half Dollar coin", "Stone Mountain's mass appeal also brings some tall problems", "Photos: Confederate memorials in metro Atlanta", "A Painful Present as Historians Confront a Nation's Bloody Past", "The Various Shady Lives of the Ku Klux Klan", "Debate brewing over Stone Mountain Park's Confederate flags", "The removal of the Confederate carving at Stone Mountain is seen as unlikely", "A monument to MLK will crown Stone Mountain - Political Insider blog", "Civil rights groups oppose King monument on Stone Mountain", https://www.al.com/news/2015/10/naacp_joins_confederate_groups.html, "Jindal seeks to block removal of Confederate monuments in New Orleans", "Confederate Monuments Are Coming Down Across the United States", "U.S. cities step up removal of Confederate statues, despite Virginia", "The Week: After Charlottesville, eyes turn to Stone Mountain", "In Georgia Governor's Race, a Defining Moment for a Southern State", "Stone Mountain: The Largest Confederate Monument Problem in the World", "Armed protesters march through Georgia's Stone Mountain Park", https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/15/us/confederate-shrine-protesters-stone-mountain-georgia.html?searchResultPosition=2, "Martin Luther King: A blockheaded memorial", "Georgia Locations for Netflix's 'Stranger Things, "New CEO hopes to boost Stone Mountain crowds", "Stone Mountain Park owner: 'We're 50% bigger than 10 years ago, Stone Mountain Park Memorial Association system: WPRF799 (public safety), Stone Mountain Park Memorial Association system: WNAU431 (businesses), "Stone Mountain Park suspends duck boats after Missouri tragedy", "Stone Mountain Park Debuts New Lasershow Spectacular™ in Mountainvision This Summer – STONE MOUNTAIN, Ga., March 21, 2011 /PRNewswire/", "WHAT THE 2020 ELECTION LOOKS LIKE IN 15 BATTLEGROUND STATES", "What Will Happen to Stone Mountain, America's Largest Confederate Memorial? In 1887, Stone Mountain was purchased for $45,000 by the Venable Brothers of Atlanta, who quarried the mountain for 24 more years, and descendants of the Venable family would retain ownership of the mountain until it was purchased by the State of Georgia in 1958. "[41][needs update], In August 2017, after the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia—a white nationalist protest against the removal of the Robert E. Lee monument and Stonewall Jackson sculpture—turned violent, many people across the country again demanded the removal of many Confederate monuments and memorials as a part of a national political debate. Songbird Habitat Trails comprise two loop trails each running 1 mile (1.6 km). “Adding to history” has been one semi-serious idea: adding everyone from MLK to revered Atlanta rap duo Outkast to the carving. Europeans first learned of the mountain in 1567, when Spanish explorers were told of a mountain farther inland which was "very high, shining when the sun set like a fire. Under terms of a 1999 agreement, Norcross, Georgia-based Herschend pays the state of Georgia $11 million annually. Through a 1958 act of the Georgia Assembly, it’s a state-sanctioned monument to the Confederacy. [18]:56, The project was greatly advanced by Mrs. C. Helen Plane,[19] a charter member of the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) and first president and Honorary Life President of the Georgia State Division. They did so by burning a kerosene-soaked 16-foot cross, and the next year, initial work began on the carving. The Georgia Assembly in 1958 legally deemed the mountain protected under state law “as a Confederate memorial.” Just last year, Georgia Gov. The farm features a petting zoo. Brian Kemp — most recently in the national news for reopening his state only weeks after the pandemic mandated nationwide shutdowns — signed into law a bill protecting monuments in Georgia from removal. Read on for a brief history of rock climbing. This intrusion of granite also gave rise to Panola Mountain and Arabia Mountain, both in DeKalb County, smaller outcroppings farther south of Stone Mountain. [18]:59–60, Venable deeded the north face of the mountain to the UDC in 1916, on condition that it complete a sizable Civil War monument in 12 years. The park features several attractions that are operated by Herschend Family Entertainment Corporation. [65] The tour includes a ride on a double decker open top bus and a pontoon boat ride at the marina.) We believe sewing is magic, and that magic is sparked by fabric. As early as 4000 B.C., Paleo-Indians were drawn to the imposing mountain, as evidenced by soapstone bowls and other artifacts recovered by archaeologists. Human habitation of Stone Mountain and its surroundings date back into prehistory. The Herschend Family Entertainment Corporation currently has a long-term contract to operate park attractions while the Stone Mountain Memorial Association retains ownership and the right to reject any project deemed unfit. “That is my goal,” Rose said. The historic houses have been furnished with an extensive collection of period furniture and decorations. During Memorial Day Weekend of 2011, Stone Mountain unveiled its overhaul of the laser show, dubbed Mountainvision, which incorporates digital projections, lasers, special effects, and pyrotechnics. Follow him on Twitter at @jaybusbee or contact him with tips and story ideas at jay.busbee@yahoo.com. White settlers moved in during the early 1800s. A vast lawn sits in front of the carving, and flags from all 13 states of the Confederacy, as well as a full range of Confederate regalia, have at times decorated the park in front of the carving. A grist mill dates from 1869 and moved to the park in 1965. This line was rebuilt by the Georgia Railroad in 1869. [2][3] The president of the NAACP called it "the largest shrine to white supremacy in the history of the world". "It is true that there are monuments in our history that do not reflect our values," Kemp said during the signing ceremony in April 2019. It passes primarily through an oak-hickory forest, but views of the lakes, streams, and mountain are common.[64]. Borglum also enlisted Luigi Del Bianco, whom he would also involve in Mount Rushmore. [39] The proposed monument is inspired by a bell-ringing ceremony held in 2013 honoring the 50th anniversary of King's speech. As recently as last year, according to one YouTube video, the park’s laser light show animated the three figures on horseback while Elvis Presley sang “Dixie” as part of his “American Trilogy.” The figures would “stride” forward, then “turn” and march into the distance: Stone Mountain has not yet reopened the laser show in the wake of the pandemic shutdown. Like the mountain itself, the carving at Stone Mountain has a long and complex history. Martin Luther King Jr. mentioned the monument in his "I Have a Dream" speech at the August 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, when he said "let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia! Find that space, that middle ground, demonstrate an intentionality to change so we can come up with some better answer.”. Stone Mountain Park is Georgia’s most popular attraction and features a wide variety of family activities. The education department is host to thousands of students each school year, teaching the subjects of geology, ecology, and history. A small theater shows a historical documentary about the Civil War in Georgia called The Battle for Georgia. The DeKalb County politician felt that completing the Confederate Memorial in combination with other attractions could be a massive revenue generator for the county and the state. The top of the mountain is a landscape of bare rock and rock pools, and it provides views of the surrounding area including the skyline of downtown Atlanta, often Kennesaw Mountain, and on very clear days even the Appalachian Mountains. An egg-shaped mass that’s only the uppermost tip of a miles-wide swath of rock, its distinctive granite graces everything from the steps on the East Wing of the U.S. Capitol to the Panama Canal to the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo. The granite intruded into the metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont region during the last stages of the Alleghenian Orogeny, which was the time when North America and North Africa collided. Cherokee, Creek, Muscogee, and earlier Indian tribes lived in the area of Stone Mountain long before it was known as Stone Mountain—as long as eight thousand years ago. The duck boats have been replaced by the Rockin’ Land and Lake Tour in 2019 due to several deaths in other locations caused by duck boat accidents. [18]:103, 116–119 The face of Lee that Borglum had partially completed was blasted off the mountain in 1928.[18]:111. The Stone Mountain project was an expensive and impressive undertaking. FM radio station WABE FM 90.1 was located on this tower from 1984 until 2005, when it was required to relocate to accommodate WGTV's digital conversion. For a more detailed history see Stone Mountain Carving Today's Stone Mountain Today's Stone Mountain is really the dream of one man, Scott Candler. These days, the park appears to be making a conscious effort to downplay the Confederate aspect. Venable and Borglum, both closely associated with the Klan, arranged to pack the SMCMA with Klan members. Aside from the bike lanes and friendly fellow cyclists you will encounter, there is also a rest station and parking lot with bathrooms, water fountains, and a small plaza to hang out and relax. However, by the late 1800s, rock climbing began to evolve into its very own sport. Stone Mountain is a large stand-alone rock formation that predates all of human history and even predating the dinosaurs by a few hundred million years. Carving History. legally deemed the mountain protected under state law, signed into law a bill protecting monuments in Georgia from removal, a page directly focused on the “Memorial Carving” itself. [59] The park is the largest attraction operated by privately-held Herschend, which also manages several dozen other attractions including Dollywood in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee, and Silver Dollar City in Branson, Missouri. In recent years, granite suppliers in Georgia sent stone samples cut from Stone Mountain to the group responsible for planning the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial in Washington, D.C.; the foundation later chose to use granite imported from China. Stone Mountain Park in Georgia is home to the largest carving that depicts three Confederate leaders. "[53], During the 1996 Summer Olympics, Stone Mountain Park provided venues for Olympic events in tennis, archery and track cycling. [10] This misconception is most likely a result of misrepresentation by granite companies and early park administration. [7] Four flags of the Confederacy are flown at the site. The concept of climbing a rock face, not necessarily reaching the top of the mountain, was a foreign concept that seemed trivial by comparison. Despite the fact that this has been a landmark as long as humans have walked in the Southeast, and despite the fact that it was a tourist stop long before the Civil War, it’s impossible to stand before Stone Mountain and not think of the Confederacy. From a side street in Stone Mountain village, you can see the rounded summit of the granite mountain. [40] Advance Local reported in 2015 that both the DeKalb County branch of the NAACP and the Sons of Confederate Veterans were opposed to the bell because it would have been put next to a Confederate monument. The building of railroads in the 1830s and 1840s allowed local farmers to participate in the larger market economy. Stone Mountain was once owned by the Venable Brothers and mined for its granite for global use. Geology of the Stone Mountain-Lithonia District, Georgia. [49] Known as the Not Fucking Around Coalition (NFAC), it was a protest against both overt and systemic racism, calling out white supremacists, with the location being chosen in part due to its history as the place where the Ku Klux Klan was re-formed. "The KKK's Mount Rushmore: the problem with Stone Mountain", "Birth of an idea: Where the King monument on Stone Mountain came from", "New Georgia Encyclopedia: Granite Outcrops", "Species Profile for Little amphianthus (Amphianthus pusillus)", "Species Profile for Black Spored quillwort (Isoetes melanospora)", "Just how big is the Stone Mountain sculpture? [34] The image on the verso of the coin was based on The Last Meeting of Lee and Jackson,[35] executed in 1869 by Everett B. D. Fabrino Julio (American, b. St. Helena 1843 – 1879, emigrated to the U.S. 1860), itself an icon of Lost Cause mythology; it is now in the American Civil War Museum (until 2012 the Museum of the Confederacy). These monuments and markers remind us of how far we've come not only as a state but as a country.". The park’s website highlights attractions including a “Dinosaur Explore” exhibit, a train that circles the mountain’s base, the laser and fireworks light show, dining, shopping “and more.”. That’s a different story with an uncertain conclusion. The options would seem to be demolition, disregard or recontextualization. (Inquiries to the park’s operators about the content of the laser show were not returned. Browse photos and price history of this bed, bath, 0 Sq. The laser light show projects images of the Deep South as well as Georgia history onto the Confederate Memorial carving. Crossroads is a recreation of an 1872 southern town with several attractions that include a modern 4-D movie theater, an adventure mini-golf course, a duck tour ride. Many critics of the carving have argued for its outright destruction. A witness testifying at the NTSB investigation stated that the pilot, a 69-year-old accountant, had threatened on multiple occasions to commit suicide by flying into the mountain. So it’s no coincidence, then, that the mountain has become a rallying point for both defenders of the “Lost Cause” and demonstrators who argue that the Confederacy doesn’t deserve the kind of sanctification that comes from being one of the world’s largest works of art. But any attempt to alter the mountain in any way, even by adding elements, will meet with fierce opposition. In an article in The Guardian, Gravel proposed a slower form of reclamation — simply halting the cleaning of the carving — as well as other initial steps to downplay the significance and prominence of the carving. On November 25 of the same year, Thanksgiving Day, a small group, including fifteen robed and hooded "charter members" of the new organization, met at the summit of Stone Mountain to create a new iteration of the Klan. The tower is also used for the park's Project 25 two-way radio systems.[62][63]. More than 120 wildflowers, most of them native to the Southern Appalachians and including several rare or federally protected species, have been identified on the mountain. History of Stone Mountain Park Stone Mountain Park is Georgia’s #1 tourist site. That was the intent of the men and women who first conceived of a monument on the mountain’s face, and that was the result of a carving that took a half-century to complete. The Stone Mountain Memorial Association was formed in 1958 as an Act of the Georgia Legislature to purchase the Stone Mountain and surrounding land for a park to serve as a memorial to Southern history and a place of recreation for Georgia’ s citizens and visitors. The park is owned by the state of Georgia and managed by Norcross-based Herschend Family Entertainment. Stone Mountain Access got its start in Chicago. The company's CEO said in a 2012 news interview that the contract to operate Stone Mountain extended another 35 years.[60]. Indeed, outside of the park’s address — 1000 Robert E. Lee Blvd. The idea of a confederate memorial carving originated with William H Terrell and John Temple Graves in 1913 and was supported by Helen Plane of the United Daughters … Numerous reference books and Georgia literature have dubbed Stone Mountain as "the largest exposed piece of granite in the world". … [32] The influence of the UDC continued, in support of Mrs. [20], Borglum's original plan was: five groups of figures, sixty-five mounted officers representing the states (to be chosen by the states), General Nathan Bedford Forrest and his cavalry—some 700 to 1,000 figures, each from 35 feet (11 m) to 50 feet (15 m) high. [50], On August 15, the park administration closed its gates in reaction to a gathering of white nationalists planned there, and the city's public buses were suspended for the day. On some days, the top of the mountain is shrouded in a heavy fog, and visibility may be limited to only a few feet. Weldon Wright's Trail. “We must never celebrate those who defended slavery and tried to destroy the Union.”, “Instead of dividing Georgians with inflammatory rhetoric for political gain,” then-Lieutenant Gov. Georgia's largest family campground, the full-service Atlanta Evergreen Marriott Resort and the historic Stone Mountain Inn are all conveniently located right inside Stone Mountain Park. Granite from the … It’s the largest bas-relief (i.e. By 1850 urbanites increasingly … Borglum was fired after disputes with the project’s financiers, and went on to a new project: Mount Rushmore. Evidence of numerous earlier Native American tribes, including mound builders, have been found in the area of the mountain. The carving on the mountain’s face? The tourmaline is mostly black in color, and the majority of it exists as optically continuous skeletal[13] crystals, but much larger, euhedral pegmatitic tourmaline crystals can also be found in the mountain's numerous, cross-cutting felsic dikes. The mother of all Confederate monuments looms in Georgia. When the mountain was first encountered by European explorers, its summit was encircled by a rock wall, similar to that still to be found on Georgia's Fort Mountain. “Starting the conversation with blasting it off won’t get anywhere,” Gravel said. Stone Mountain Park features a Confederate Memorial Carving depicting Stonewall Jackson, Robert E. Lee and President Jefferson Davis. Executive Summary: Condensed History of the Stone Mountain Carving The carving on the side of Stone Mountain has a controversial history that involves strong connections to white supremacy, Confederate Lost Cause mythology, and anti-Civil Rights sentiments. [8] By 2015, it was the most visited destination in the state of Georgia.[6]. Our History smas-admin 2020-04-09T18:56:11+00:00 Our Beginnings 1997. By the beginning of the 20th century, the wall had disappeared, the rocks having been taken away by early visitors as souvenirs, rolled down the rockface, or removed by the commercial quarrying operation. Craft demonstrators include glass blowing and candy-making. Jay Busbee is a writer for Yahoo. At its summit, the elevation is 1,686 feet (514 m) above sea level and 825 feet (251 m) above the surrounding area. She suggested in a letter to the first sculptor, Gutzon Borglum: I feel it is due to the Klan[,] which saved us from Negro dominations [sic] and carpetbag rule, that it be immortalized on Stone Mountain. Led by William J. Simmons, it included two elderly members of the original Klan. We pride ourselves not only on our selection, but also our collective knowledge on everything fabric. "We cannot erase them from our history. 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