phrasal verb is concerned, looking specifically at the considerations of polysemy, homonymy and ambiguity It considers, again, the features of transitivity, complementation and their effects on the meaning of phrasal verbs. We have relations of meaning such as synonymy and antonymy, polysemy and homonymy, ways of organizing the vocabulary. UE���݇�����P��>������]j���)G�ʢ�9�b��� --Dynamics of language : the Yoruba example / Solomon Olanrewaju Makinde (pages 311-318). Polysemy (/pəˈlɪsɪmi/ or /ˈpɒlɪsiːmi/;[1][2] from Greek: πολύ-, polý-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field. ?sun is a brilliant deity whose imagery and worldwide devotion demand broad and deep scholarly reflection. Semi-productive polysemy and sense extension. A polyseme is a word or phrase with different, but related senses. Since eye is highly salient in many languages while face, seed and fruit are of relatively low salience, MAUREEN WARNER-LEWIS Yoruba settlement in Trinidad The casting adrift of the Yoruba to the Americas began with the intense political jockeying and civil unrest in the Yoruba Empire and outlying Yoruba-speaking kingdoms of West Africa from the close of the eighteenth century and throughout most of the nineteenth. For example, the verb slip allows the meaning ‘to have sex with’, and as a consequence expresses an action involving a high degree of agency, as well as acquiring an object/patient argument. Hino, Y., Pexman, P.M., & Lupker, S.J. Having shown that some aspects of the semantic network are universal, we next ask whether the observed heterogeneous degrees of polysemy, possibly a manifestation of varying densities of near conceptual neighbors, arise as artifacts of language family structure in our sample, or if they are inherent to the … In cpe, these all allow (but do not necessarily require) valency increase as a consequence of polysemy. Copestake, A. and A. Lascarides (1997). ii. Obscurity in a teacher is a great defect, especially when he glories in his ambiguity. Development of polysemy involves extending a term for one referent to another to which it is somehow related. Alan Cruse identifies three types of non-linear polysemy:[4]. ���xwַ�B[����Ŵ�E�Q�h�R��iS�fY�2j�l�� �)���i�� Figure i indicates direction of referential extension involved in development of eye/face, seed/fruit, eye/seed and eye/fruit polysemy. Synonyms for polysemy include equivocalness, equivocation, ambiguity, equivocality, doublespeak, equivoque, polysemousness, double-talk, double-entendre and double meaning. Linguists have still not been able to find the proper classification for the language. Spokespersons from each group report back to the entire class. This is supported by the morphology: "We are parked out back" does not mean that there are multiple cars; rather, that there are multiple passengers (having the property of being in possession of a car). The fact that this test again depends on speakers' judgments about relatedness, however, means that this test for polysemy is not infallible, but is rather merely a helpful conceptual aid. <>>> Contributors to the ground-breaking Africa's Ogun, edited by Sandra Barnes (Indiana University Press, 1997), explored the complex nature of Ogun, the orisa who transforms life through iron and technology. Ã'sun presents a dynamic example of the resilience and renewed importance of traditional Yoruba images in negotiating spiritual experience, social identity, and political power in contemporary Africa endobj "John used to work for the newspaper that you are reading.". Early accounts treated polysemy in terms of sense enumeration: each sense of a polysemous expression is represented individually in the lexicon, such that polysemy and homonymy were treated on a par. Though, situated within the Ekiti dialect extraction of Yoruba speaking language area, Àhàn is a distinct language from Yorùbá. This avoids incorrect polysemous interpretations of "parked": that "people can be parked", or that "I am pretending to be a car", or that "I am something that can be parked". Example 1 contains 2, and 2 contains 3. Meaning and the interpretation of signs and symbols / Olufunmilayo M Ogunkeye (p. 581-592). Research topics, theoretical tools and languages considered are quite diverse. "�'*���� D���r���Xw=:���7o�ċ�P�v28��bj �q�s�޿C��rps}I���������� ���)���~���~�x�/��n���.����{��������E_3pt��� ƿ|���@��Ds�/o��H�|�.z�����8����B�1�x%�y�q�9�6k�!��2,��U����=��@��k���^����'WLؔ�g��(����������Ȣ��3� The difference between homonyms and polysemes is subtle. For it, he drew on Renaissance technical terms, derivations, compounds, archaisms, polysemy, etymological meanings, and idioms. ... Elegua is the name for the … Ã’sun is a brilliant deity whose imagery and worldwide devotion demand broad and deep scholarly reflection. 4 0 obj �Tc��7�;��� "Unable to book a hotel room, a man sneaked into a nearby private residence where police arrested him and later booked him for unlawful entry."). ���>�%u���B쑳T��ʒ/j���^Zns-�a��IҡR\v��̇ 0��� H6��8l�@T> �����1�&�����Z�g|C��a��‚�jF�� Ambiguity and relatedness effects in semantic tasks: Are they due to semantic coding? Proper argument projection in Igbo and Yoruba. Provide examples? 1sg 26. lexical 26. organizing 26. grammar 26. linguistics 25. part terminology 25. body … Sometimes only one of those meanings is intended, depending on context, and sometimes multiple meanings are intended at the same time. Examples include: "the hyacinth purple, and white, and blue, Which flung There are several tests for polysemy, but one of them is zeugma: if one word seems to exhibit zeugma when applied in different contexts, it is likely that the contexts bring out different polysemes of the same word. Proceedings of ACL-97. For example, EARTH/SOIL has more than hundreds of polysemes while SALT has only a few. Publisher: Universitet Leiden Publication date: 2006 Number of pages: ... examples 40. linguistic 39. terminology 38. partonomy 37. expressions 35. cognitive 34. principles 34. andersen 34. research 34. related 33. levels 31. constructions 29. bone 29. african 27. Polysemy in Language "Sports Illustrated can be bought for 1 dollar or 35 million dollars; the first is something you can read and later start a fire with, the second is a particular company that produces the magazine you just read. a single physical item published by the company. Polysemy is thus distinct from homonymy—or homophony—which is an accidental similarity between two words (such as bear the animal, and the verb to bear); while homonymy is often a mere linguistic coincidence, polysemy is not. ... Yoruba is one such language (e.g. Some apparently unrelated words share a common historical origin, however, so etymology is not an infallible test for polysemy, and dictionary writers also often defer to speakers' intuitions to judge polysemy in cases where it contradicts etymology. POLYSEMY consists in a variety of semantic relations through which meanings of words extend or shift so that a single word has two or more related meanings, as with nickel (the coin) and nickel (the metal). D. When, if ever, can we know something with absolute certainty? Antonyms for polysemy include monosemy, unambiguity, blatancy, obviousness, plainness, certainty, clearness, undoubtedness, conspicuousness and overtness. 1.1 Yoruba: a brief linguistic profile 1 1.1.1 Phonology 2 1.1.2 Some notes on grammar 4 1.2 Previous research on body-part terminology 6 ... 3.1.3 Eye and face polysemy: the case of ojú 57 3.2 On the nature of body-part terms 59 ... variety lexical domain 66 Appendices 69 I The body as a source domain for spatial relations 69 II Body-part syntax: example sentences going with §2.2.3 70 III Glossary (Yoruba … In these examples, the identity covers both the spoken and written forms, but it is possible to have partial homonymy—or heteronymy—where the identity is within a single medium, as in homophony and homography.When there is ambiguity between … All the words for actual snow have been removed, and I'm ignoring the extensive polysemy of snow and many of its derivatives. ����ܾ����I0���������D�G�4��uG� Lexicographers define polysemes within a single dictionary lemma, numbering different meanings, while homonyms are treated in separate lemmata. Contributors to the ground-breaking Africa's Ogun, edited by Sandra Barnes (Indiana University Press, 1997), explored the complex nature of Ogun, the orisa who transforms life through iron and technology. In deciding between polysemy or homonymy, it might be necessary to look at the history of the word to see if the two meanings are historically related. Because applying pre-existing words to new situations is a natural process of language change, looking at words' etymology is helpful in determining polysemy but not the only solution; as words become lost in etymology, what once was a useful distinction of meaning may no longer be so. #�.7wά6��Ȇ� �z�����Z,�:�٬�G:� 1τr��\�`5����(6� ��=�'�;n���1T]�$1Y���~b.�0��������?�:ۖM f-,1/u�v�)4�+��ܓ�xad���!��_�6�����D���& ;�Ah&� �>��(/�(��k�T �)L�����(a�˟?�(�Xz? For the moth genus, see. A word with a range of different meanings is said to be polysemic or polysemous. rǞ'�a��1h0~�����B��'|�݈ �;���_u�@�(IY(,i���!���6���5���n�s���?�5qH���x�bd��"�6�i�z�f�. "Osun Across the Waters" continues this exploration of Yoruba religion by documenting Osun religion. SCIL-V, MIT, MIT Working … Lexical analysis of polysemy in Owere Igbo / Christie Omego (p. 565-580). He was Chesterfieldian in conventional politeness, and as smooth as Talleyrand in ambiguity of speech. Another clarification of polysemy is the idea of predicate transfer[18]—the reassignment of a property to an object that would not otherwise inherently have that property. Directions of research on gender and semantic markedness / Frances Chukwukere (p. 593-602). Madugu 1976), as is Kenyang, a Southern Bantoid language of … a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface, which moves the cursor in accordance with its move. Dictionary writers list polysemes under the same entry; homonyms are defined separately. If the two senses of the same word do not seem to fit, yet seem related, then it is likely that they are polysemous. This example shows the specific polysemy where the same word is used at different levels of a taxonomy. Beretta, A., Fiorentino, R., & Poeppel, D. (2005). Suit yourself and wear a suit. Integrating symbolic and statistical representations: The lexicon pragmatic interface. Examples from Classical Literature It is sufficient that the ambiguity was such as to deceive the friends of the Cyclops. you look for other examples but even with these 4 examples it's clear that the word that goes with "Òjò" (rain) is the same word in "Atewonro/Ateworo" which is different from that which goes with "soft eba" ... Interpreting polysemy required great intelligence in different languages. Hino, Y., Kusunose, Y., & Lupker, S.J. In other words, there is a kind of reflexive-reciprocal polysemy in the language. searching for Polysemy 74 found (173 total) alternate case: polysemy. <> A lexical conception of polysemy was developed by B. T. S. Atkins, in the form of lexical implication rules. [5][6][7][8] Results for this contention, however, have been mixed.[9][10][11][12]. ... or polysemy characteristic of this level of discourse. Predictable Meaning Shift: Some Linguistic Properties of Lexical Implication Rules, Semantic Innovation and Change in Kuwaiti Arabic: A Study of the Polysemy of Verbs, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polysemy&oldid=999762424, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, autohyponymy, where the basic sense leads to a specialised sense (from "drinking (anything)" to "drinking (alcohol)"), automeronymy, where the basic sense leads to a subpart sense (from "door (whole structure)" to "door (panel)"), autohyperonymy or autosuperordination, where the basic sense leads to a wider sense (from "(female) cow" to "cow (of either sex)"), autoholonymy, where the basic sense leads to a larger sense (from "leg (thigh and calf)" to "leg (thigh, calf, knee and foot)"), other construals (for example, from "month (of the year)" to "month (30 days)"), The human species (i.e., man vs. other organisms), Males of the human species (i.e., man vs. woman), Adult males of the human species (i.e., man vs. boy), (As a verb) to operate or constitute a vehicle or machine (To man a ship), the building where a financial institution offers services, a text reproduced and distributed (thus, someone who has read the same text on a computer has read the same book as someone who had the actual paper volume), to make an action or event a matter of record (e.g. Other types are derivations from one of the other meanings that leads to a verb or activity. Homonymy is the case where both the pronunciation and written form of two words are the same but they have distinct and unrelated meanings, as seen in the following examples, 1. i. A crude example of such a rule is the pastoral idea of "verbizing one's nouns": that certain nouns, used in certain contexts, can be converted into a verb, conveying a related meaning. 3 0 obj ��:�� 9�z �/ h�&��;��W{�3��!A΄r{�{0 �F�"E�t��XW���%����LQ�,x�n17�4]q��0�Mt����_�����>�[Ğ|z2�Wu33P���|X�+�m4�@��L��e�7�1lY�ƒa�g�!��EZ������HzJ�C:���$�5��� ����0M���#H0A�����X���#��x��~��\�Gpl����۩`;C�:���_UP �҇E\kr� r$�S5���]���hA�̚Ė��-�+�9��`��0���?�?5(ꛇ�l�$�KH�̂�Sd>l;k6O�� �G��;����� ��#2�u܄f3��Rd��m��6�ɐ�y����H ��_0p���f�f�� ��~��`���N)����a��-�:^��g��iIЭ�u��٨�+����C�{�|:a�g�ʖ����d'�"��� ���z�kRS��I�x�����������n����-����eС3%!BI�OL�JB)t�2t1E�S���կ��1���c5Fڀ���щ�aG����� a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate. An Archaeology of the Aesthetic: Slavery and Politics at the Jesuit Vineyards of Nasca - Volume 31 Issue 1 Theories of polysemy usually rest on one of two hypotheses:(a) there is a literal meaning from which the other meanings are derived (a linear explanation), For example, the literal meaning of mouse is the rodent; a derived meaning is the computer mouse. 1 0 obj �u��O/�D0�h�^O�t�����ײ �}{��8Ӓ$�?�8�FeBt�[���չ}��W�ѳ�+xT=l�_��f��� �־X7�) )�auk�E��-n�h$H|�l$��N��r�N?�o�9X;>�8�~�2Kh;3���������ϧ8�#�R�r�����>�SJ"�j>W��e���q�]O�,��?PQ,s6�Z�=8́A`��� ���d�)r�ud����Hw�n�Q�P_p@n�4x,���Y�"ni)zK��X0Y]��ސ�h葯T�i���/�;"�]���~��p�����,K����@"fo5�eS4�%hE[��L!�5��}��s�@�А��0�����f�����N &'(�4/b!�~V4�Eh��D҆�2t萊�8 Polysemy is an important phenomenon in Yorùbá, to correctly categorize a word, the context where it occurs is the determining factor. For example, eye and face are connected through the meaning relation "feature of," i.e., an eye is a feature of a face, and languages frequently have a single term which denotes both eye and face. Òsun is a brilliant deity whose imagery and worldwide devotion demand broad and deep scholarly reflection. English has many polysemous words. The indivisibility of {áí-} in standard Yorùbá / Oye Taiwo (pages 557-564). 2 0 obj Osun presents a dynamic example of the resilience and renewed importance of traditional Yoruba images in negotiating spiritual experience, social identity, and political power in contemporary African and the African diaspora. Charles Fillmore and Beryl Atkins' definition stipulates three elements: (i) the various senses of a polysemous word have a central origin, (ii) the links between these senses form a network, and (iii) understanding the 'inner' one contributes to understanding of the 'outer' one.[15]. Find more similar words at wordhippo.com! This should generate some interesting discussion and provide a good first pass at some perennial epistemological conundrums. ��MP��P��G���]a�E�i~�J(�u\_�ĩ%��Ԯں�i���i�fε��7l9�g���)4F����L�eK�!$��r��c��i̪8~6��ɬy��Z�#N� �Y7��"w�9�J�b�P This section will probably be moved to a separate page. Examples and Observations "Homonyms are illustrated from the various meanings of the word bear (animal, carry) or ear (of body, of corn). The idea of signifying practice—texts not as communicating or expressing a pre-existing meaning but as 'positioning subjects' within a process of semiosis—changes the whole basis of creating social meaning". Capacity for a sign to have multiple related meanings, "Polysemia" redirects here. a type of construction equipment which looks like it has a long neck. Thus, the expression "I am parked out back" conveys the meaning of "parked" from "car" to the property of "I possess a car". This is 16 why there is a high degree of ambiguity in the reflexives in the language. Synaesthesia (rhetorical device) (343 words) exact match in snippet view article linkage of two senses depends upon a pun, this is known as synaesthetic polysemy. This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 20:56. in biology; and … Recent work by faculty and students working in semantics and pragmatics has involved, besides English, Amharic, Chinese, Hungarian, Romance languages, Northern Paiute, Yoruba, Zazaki, and Zapotec. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 15-68. Semantic shift can separate a polysemous word into separate homonyms. 1a) Àwọn obìnrin-náà rí ara wọn (Yoruba ID1912) ... Ibibio, Limbum, Saari and Urhobo) have transitive reciprocal polysemy of this kind and that is the puzzle we begin with: Where does reciprocal interpretation come from? stream x��ޒ��l�$�쌓{NN*�Y�-f%R���d��� I��Ļ���K�h4��9�\���h�F_}u~ٶ��l:�~>�o��_�Q��(�q"uT'Et�x�*����7�_��`U���3!�P ���YNW��`��A WO�xÏ���t�Wo�g)��_�~��#m�W5�c�E4Y�`x�XiL�����L2����� MTLpV*�����;`�A�A�i��.~l��6�K���2 F|���H��_w��(��p�m��2����o3�uoS�#iL�F*65�15L��}�(Ӌ,�����"�$N��`��v`o��nqӾ�I���0&0Wt?�y S��Ff2.R$�9�b)|�2� �� �)�X��_�R�i�J�8�}ؿ����s��s��g���g�ט��W�yw��q`~��;{�,��z �t��h Ã’sun across the Waters continues this exploration of Yoruba religion by documenting … Looking at the use of ‘di’ in the above examples, it would be anomalous for it to be described as involving … concentrate on polysemy, which can be further divided into two types (Tabossi, 1988; Apresjan, 2015). ... Yoruba-YTB; More. endobj It is certainly possible to hypothesize that direct object anaphors are assigned a feature that somehow induces reciprocal … f�z3'_(�"`�����N�� ��Qg{�� ������mG~����R�H�c6q����� �'8�u��&'�5CBqH�iœ�q��r,My�#�b?���sB����p.��(c��"1"C��'Ɖ����a���.G'dw$�IB�҃��Q�R�$S��Us across the Waters continues this exploration of Yoruba religion by documenting Ã'sun religion. Examples are taken from the Language Gulper. --Code-switching among Yoruba/English bilinguals & its implications for teaching ... a study of the language of SMS text messages / Mbuk A. Utuk (pages 303-310). <> %PDF-1.5 (b) there is a core meaning with specific senses triggered either by the context or by rules (a subsuming explanation). the newspaper as an edited work in a specific format (e.g. endobj Òsun across the Waters continues this exploration of Yoruba religion by documenting … Such polysemy can give rise to a special ambiguity (He left the bank five minutes ago, He left the bank five years ago).Sometimes dictionaries use history to decide … Czeslaw Lachur, besides noting the traditional radial and chain (concatenation) types of polysemy (cf. For Dick Hebdige[13] polysemy means that, "each text is seen to generate a potentially infinite range of meanings," making, according to Richard Middleton,[14] "any homology, out of the most heterogeneous materials, possible. Contributors to the ground-breaking Africa's Ogun, edited by Sandra Barnes (Indiana University Press, 1997), explored the complex nature of Ogun, the orisa who transforms life through iron and technology. [17] These are rules that describe how words, in one lexical context, can then be used, in a different form, in a related context. Since the test for polysemy is the vague concept of the relatedness, judgments of polysemy can be difficult to make. This paper documents occurrences of widespread polysemy involving terms for parts of human limbs.1 For instance, many geographically and genetically unrelated languages use a single term to denote "hand" and "arm" … The relatedness-of-meaning effect for ambiguous words in lexical-decision tasks: When does relatedness matter? The default interpretation of the bare verb stem is the past tense. Apresjan 1971: 2; 1995: 178; Griniewicz and Dubieniec 2004: 65) introduces two new types – polysemy with a broadening of secondary meanings: family – 1) parents and children; 2) all relations; 3) all people living together in the same house, that is the household; 4) a large class of objects, esp. Psycholinguistic experiments have shown that homonyms and polysemes are represented differently within people's mental lexicon: while the different meanings of homonyms (which are semantically unrelated) tend to interfere or compete with each other during comprehension, this does not usually occur for the polysemes that have semantically related meanings. I98 I). (2006). The Boby in Yoruba-A Linguistic Study Mark Dingemanse. Examples. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "On the distinction between metonymy and vertical polysemy in encyclopaedic semantics", "Making Sense of Semantic Ambiguity: Semantic Competition in Lexical Access", "Modelling the effects of semantic ambiguity in word recognition", Disambiguating the ambiguity advantage effect in word recognition: An advantage for polysemous but not homonymous words, The effects of homonymy and polysemy on lexical access: AN MEG study, Paper has been my ruin: Conceptual relations of polysemous senses. Lexical Semantics: The Problem of Polysemy. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> \�_��P*�0�zHb,2�G�̀Y�Տ+��77Az$M�a�R�f,-m�[�Qi�i�?�_LE�4#]���VQ��g8Q`pB������/���]����� --Lexical analysis of polysemy in … [3] For example, 'dog' can be used for 'male dog'. For example, approximately two-thirds of the languages of the world use a single term to designate both "wood" and "tree" (Witkowski, Brown, and ... (Brown and Witkowski 1983). 8�4�E,�h5}���o�Q)�?�~b���q��U��f�ש}��Gq��P����@�ASԿF��0�RPb�{0��a� '���KX3rL$�6U����n5�1D$�8���8���ߢ�`��7[�d"��V���h�8�Y���BDo��N�ѕ�B�Z�|�ޱg�$���Ͽ�p���"�K��h�]�DܑE���k� These are examples of hyponymy and hypernymy, and are sometimes called autohyponyms. Polysemy (/ p ə ˈ l ɪ s ɪ m i / or / ˈ p ɒ l ɪ s iː m i /; from Greek: πολύ-, polý-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.Polysemy is thus distinct from homonymy—or homophony—which is an accidental similarity between two words (such as bear the animal, and the verb to bear); while homonymy is often … "They changed the layout of the newspaper's front page"). The Yoruba example even permits a literal interpretation, ‘their bodies’. In linear or vertical polysemy, one sense of a word is a subset of the other. %���� other examples of polysemy (Witkowski et al. Examples for these are given in the body … ?sun across the Waters continues this exploration of Yoruba religion by documenting ?sun … However, the … One group of polysemes are those in which a word meaning an activity, perhaps derived from a verb, acquires the meanings of those engaged in the activity, or perhaps the results of the activity, or the time or place in which the activity occurs or has occurred. The indivisibility of [a-] in standard Yoruba / Oye Taiwo (p. 557-564). The Yoruba wordsmiths of old were men of great learning, and their works are better appreciated irrespective of … The different meanings can be combined in a single sentence, e.g. Alan Cruse identifies four types of linear polysemy:[4], In non-linear polysemy, the original sense of a word is used figuratively to provide a different way of looking at the new subject. For example, the verb "to get" can mean "procure" (I'll get the drinks), "become" (she got scared), "understand" (I get it) etc. J. Pustejovsky and B. Boguraev. For example, check as in "bank check" (or Cheque), check in chess, and check meaning "verification" are considered homonyms, while they originated as a single word derived from chess in the 14th century. (2010).

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