[7] Several well-known dystopian works by British author J. G. Ballard deal with climate-related natural disasters: In The Wind from Nowhere (1961), civilization is reduced by persistent hurricane-force winds, and The Drowned World (1962) describes a future of melted ice-caps and rising sea-levels caused by solar radiation. [199], Low-lying islands and coastal communities are threatened through hazards posed by sea level rise, such as flooding and permanent submergence. First, CO2 dissolves in the surface water. [208], Tidal flooding. [265], A wide range of policies, regulations and laws are being used to reduce greenhouse gases. [162], Recent warming has driven many terrestrial and freshwater species poleward and towards higher altitudes. [44] However, the modern observed rise in temperature and CO2 concentrations has been so rapid that even abrupt geophysical events that took place in Earth's history do not approach current rates. [257] The capacity and potential for humans to adapt, called adaptive capacity, is unevenly distributed across different regions and populations, and developing countries generally have less. Environmental migration. [132] Climate model projections summarized in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report indicate that, during the 21st century, the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 °C (0.5 to 3.1 °F) in a moderate scenario, or as much as 2.6 to 4.8 °C (4.7 to 8.6 °F) in an extreme scenario, depending on the rate of future greenhouse gas emissions and on climate feedback effects. It might seem impossible to you that all custom-written essays, research papers, speeches, book reviews, and other custom task completed by our writers are both of high quality and cheap. [248] Carbon capture and storage in combination with bio-energy (BECCS) can result in net-negative emissions. [20], Devolution of a Species by M.E. [215], Although there is no single pathway to limit global warming to 1.5 or 2.0 °C (2.7 or 3.6 °F),[216] most scenarios and strategies see a major increase in the use of renewable energy in combination with increased energy efficiency measures to generate the needed greenhouse gas reductions. Learn more. Over the last two decades, the world's oceans have absorbed 20 to 30% of emitted CO2. [111] The reduction of snow cover and sea ice in the Arctic reduces the albedo of the Earth's surface. [152] In addition, oxygen levels are decreasing as oxygen is less soluble in warmer water,[153] with hypoxic dead zones expanding as a result of algal blooms stimulated by higher temperatures, higher CO2 levels, ocean deoxygenation, and eutrophication. To determine the human contribution, known internal climate variability and natural external forcings need to be ruled out. [110] Overall, the net cloud feedback over the industrial era has probably exacerbated temperature rise. [207], Agricultural changes. Extreme weather. [179] Climate change risks are unevenly distributed, but are generally greater for disadvantaged people in developing and developed countries. [186] Other major health risks associated with climate change include air and water quality. These models simulate how population, economic growth, and energy use affect—and interact with—the physical climate. ", "Temperature increase reduces global yields of major crops in four independent estimates", "The Paris Agreement: Summary. ", IPCC AR5 SYR Summary for Policymakers 2014, "What are the inputs and outputs for a climate model? [183] Young children are the most vulnerable to food shortages, and together with older people, to extreme heat. [285] The Accord set the goal of sending $100 billion per year to developing countries in assistance for mitigation and adaptation by 2020, and proposed the founding of the Green Climate Fund. Many arctic animals rely on sea ice, which has been disappearing in a warming Arctic. Arctic warming. For instance, the change from a dark forest to grassland makes the surface lighter, causing it to reflect more sunlight. [103] Present-day volcanic CO2 emissions are equivalent to less than 1% of current anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The main causes of deforestation are: permanent land-use change from forest to agricultural land producing products such as beef and palm oil (27%), logging to produce forestry/forest products (26%), short term shifting cultivation (24%), and wildfires (23%). ", "Global imprint of climate change on marine life", "Recent Climate Observations Compared to Projections", "Global and Regional Climate Changes due to Black Carbon", "An update of observed stratospheric temperature trends", "Coal-exit health and environmental damage reductions outweigh economic impacts", "The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways and their energy, land use, and greenhouse gas emissions implications: An overview", "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice", "Fulfilling Climate Justice And Government Obligations To Alaska Native Villages: What Is The Government Role? FILMMAKING GRANTS. [291] In November 2020, the United States withdrew from the Paris Agreement. [4] The human cause of climate change is not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing. [170] Harmful algae bloom enhanced by climate change and eutrophication cause anoxia, disruption of food webs and massive large-scale mortality of marine life. Solar and wind power require energy storage systems and other modifications to the electricity grid to operate effectively,[225] although several storage technologies are now emerging to supplement the traditional use of pumped-storage hydropower. [299], There is an overwhelming scientific consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases, with 90%–100% (depending on the exact question, timing and sampling methodology) of publishing climate scientists agreeing. [228] Renewables represented 75% of all new electricity generation installed in 2019, with solar and wind constituting nearly all of that amount. [48] There has been an increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation, melting of snow and land ice, and increased atmospheric humidity. [96] In tropic and temperate areas the net effect is to produce a significant warming, while at latitudes closer to the poles a gain of albedo (as forest is replaced by snow cover) leads to an overall cooling effect. Although its current use is limited in scale and expensive,[247] carbon capture and storage (CCS) may be able to play a significant role in limiting CO2 emissions by mid-century. [308], Climate change came to international public attention in the late 1980s. [264] Another argument against this framing is that net importers of fossil fuels win economically from transitioning, causing net exporters to face stranded assets: fossil fuels they cannot sell. [311] A 2018 survey found increased concern globally on the issue compared to 2013 in most countries. [15], Cultural critic Josephine Livingston at The New Republic: "From Jeff Vandermeer's Annihilation to Nathaniel Rich's Odds Against Tomorrow, the last decade has seen such a steep rise in sophisticated 'cli-fi' that some literary publications now devote whole verticals to it. [66] Before the Industrial Revolution, naturally-occurring amounts of greenhouse gases caused the air near the surface to be about 33 °C (59 °F) warmer than it would have been in their absence. [268] Ending these can cause a 28% reduction in global carbon emissions and a 46% reduction in air pollution deaths. [320], Climate protests have risen in popularity in the 2010s in such forms as public demonstrations,[321] fossil fuel divestment, and lawsuits. [326] Starting in 1859,[327] John Tyndall established that nitrogen and oxygen (99% of dry air) are transparent to infrared, but water vapour and traces of some gases (significantly methane and carbon dioxide) both absorb infrared and, when warmed, emit infrared radiation. Sulfate aerosols act as cloud condensation nuclei and thus lead to clouds that have more and smaller cloud droplets. [46] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has adopted the baseline reference period 1850–1900 as an approximation of pre-industrial global mean surface temperature,[46] when thermometer records began to provide global coverage. The future balance of these opposing effects is unclear. [305] In 2013, the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report stated that "it is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century". Who We Are. We offer free revision as long as the client does not change the instructions that had been previously given. However, its results suggest that dystopic climate narratives might lead to support for reactionary responses to climate change. [250] Reforestation and tree planting on non-forest lands are among the most mature sequestration techniques, although they raise food security concerns. Deforestation can also contribute to changing temperatures by affecting the release of aerosols and other chemical compounds that influence clouds, and by changing wind patterns. [3] Fossil fuel burning (coal, oil, and gas) for energy consumption is the main source of these emissions, with additional contributions from agriculture, deforestation, and industrial processes. Events like the June 2019 European heat wave are becoming more common. [258] There are limits to adaptation and more severe climate change requires more transformative adaptation, which can be prohibitively expensive. The land-surface sink is estimated to remove about 29% of annual global CO2 emissions. [191] The effects of warming on the oceans also impact fish stocks, with a global decline in the maximum catch potential. [266] As of 2019, carbon pricing covers about 20% of global greenhouse gas emissions. [43] There have been prehistorical episodes of global warming, such as the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. For such an order you are expected to send a revision request and include all the instructions that should be followed by the writer. [238] Hydropower growth has been slowing and is set to decline further due to concerns about social and environmental impacts. Inhabitants of Orbus hope to take advantage of possibilities offered by a newly discovered planet, Planet Blue, which appears perfect for human life. "Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change", "Climate Change and the Risk of Statelessness: The Situation of Low-lying Island States", Methane and Black Carbon Impacts on the Arctic: Communicating the Science, Quantitative risk assessment of the effects of climate change on selected causes of death, 2030s and 2050s, "The Public and Climate Change: Suspicions of a Human-Caused Greenhouse (1956–1969)", "The Public and Climate Change (cont. [60] Other changes are caused by an imbalance of energy that is "external" to the climate system, but not always external to the Earth. [166] Overall, it is expected that climate change will result in the extinction of many species. Get high-quality papers at affordable prices. [11] Michael Crichton's State of Fear (2004), a techno-thriller portrays climate change as "a vast pseudo-scientific hoax" and is critical of scientific opinion on climate change. ", "WHO calls for urgent action to protect health from climate change – Sign the call", "How Effective Is Land At Removing Carbon Pollution? [164] Climate change has contributed to the expansion of drier climate zones, such as the expansion of deserts in the subtropics. Climate as a common good. ", "Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies", "The UK Has Declared a Climate Emergency: What Now? [206], Environmental migration. For other uses, see, Current rise in Earth's average temperature and its effects, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Temperature record of the last 2,000 years, hurricanes and typhoons is likely increasing, shrinking and thinning of the Arctic sea ice, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Effects of climate change on human health, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United States withdrew from the Paris Agreement, Academic studies of scientific agreement on human-caused global warming, IPCC AR5 WG1 Summary for Policymakers 2013, "Scientific Consensus: Earth's Climate is Warming", United Nations Environment Programme 2019, Weart "The Public and Climate Change: The Summer of 1988", "News reporters gave only a little attention ...", BBC Science Focus Magazine, 3 February 2020, "Global Annual Mean Surface Air Temperature Change", United States Environmental Protection Agency 2016, "Redox, extraction of iron and transition metals", The Sustainability Consortium, 13 September 2018, World Resources Institute, 8 December 2019, "The study of Earth as an integrated system", "Who does climate modelling around the world? [329] Other scientists were initially sceptical and believed the greenhouse effect to be saturated so that adding more CO2 would make no difference.